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Neurotoxicity of Nigerian bonny light crude oil in rats

187 Introduction Pollution by petroleum is a widespread, common problem in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria, and the potential adverse effects is of public interest. Exposure to chemicals in crude oil and dispersants can occur through skin contact, inhalation of contaminated air or soil/sand, and ingestion of contaminated water or food. These can occur simultaneously (Burns and Harbut, 2010). Interestingly, the folkloric uses of Nigerian bonny light crude oil (BLCO) by the local population includes dermal application for burns, foot rot and leg ulcers, poisoning and witchcraft,

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The effect of octreotide, an analog of somatostatin, on bleomycin-induced interstitial pulmonary fibrosis in rats

181 Introduction Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic inflammatory interstitial lung disease with a high mortality rate and poor response to available medical therapy (Gross and Hunninghake, 2001; Yildirim et al., 2004). It is characterized by an accumulation of alveolar macrophages and neutrophils in the lower respiratory tract, paranchymal cell injury, and fibrosis of the alveolar walls (Snider et al., 1978). Fibrosis is a feature of tissue remodeling that arises as a result of a homeostatic repair mechanism, but it may adversely affect the physiological function of the lungs

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The acute, genetic, developmental and inhalation toxicology of trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234ze)

170 Introduction The chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were introduced in the 1930s as “safe” replacements for refrigerants, such as sulfur dioxide, ammonia, and carbon tetrachloride. During the next 40–50 years, the number and type of applications expanded to include foam blowing, precision cleaning, and propellants for medicinal, cosmetic, and general-purpose aerosols, air conditioning, and refrigeration. These uses resulted in emission of the CFCs into the atmosphere. Because of their low chemical reactivity, they typically have long atmospheric residence times, and as a consequence, they

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Application of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to detect genotoxic effect of trifluralin on maize (Zea mays)

163 Introduction Herbicides are compounds designed to control the development of undesirable plants that may interfere with the growth of commercial crops (Baker and Wilkinson, 1990). Over the past 50 years, herbicide production and use have increased around the world. Although herbicides are widely used in agricultural applications to wipe out undesirable weeds, they could enter food chains causing not only poisoning, but also genetic damages. Trifluralin is a selective preemergent dinitroaniline herbicide indiscriminately used for the control of grasses and broadleaf

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Biochemical alterations and liver toxicity analysis with pioglitazone in healthy subjects

149 Introduction The prevalence of diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), has been increasing rapidly, imposing one of the most challenging public health problems of the 21st century to Bangladesh and the world. There is no known fail-safe method of preventing T2DM. The treatment goals for T2DM include effectively controlling blood glucose level and maintaining a healthy blood pressure and lipid profile to avert the serious complications resulting from a sustained tissue exposure to excess glucose. A number of agents have been used in treating T2DM,

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Artificial sweeteners have become popular and are present in many products, especially in sugar-free products, because their use is assumed to enable a reduction in sugar consumption and a significant decrease in caloric intake, which is capable of mainta

Sweeteners are also gaining importance as a part of nutritional guidance for diabetes, a disease with increasing incidence in developed as well as developing countries (Humphries et al., 2007). Aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) is a dipeptide artificial sweetener that is widely used as a non-nutritive sweetener in foods and drinks. Aspartame is used as a sweetener in food products, including dry beverage mixes, chewable multivitamins, breakfast cereals, chewing gum, puddings and fillings, carbonated beverages, refrigerated and nonrefrigerated ready-to-drink

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Acute effects of thymoquinone on the pregnant rat and embryo-fetal development

27
Introduction
Thymoquinone (TQ) is the major active constituent of the
volatile oil of Nigella sativa L. seeds (also known as black
cumin), which is used in herbal medicine and in food as
a condiment (Padhye et al., 2008; Butt and Sultan, 2010).
TQ exerts anticancer, antiinflammatory and antioxidant
effects both in vitro and in vivo (Shimizu et al., 2004).
Many investigators have shown that growth-inhibitory
effects of TQ are specific to cancer cells and that it showed

Genotoxicity and reproductive toxicity of bisphenol A and X-ray/bisphenol A combination in male mice

19
Introduction
Humans are constantly exposed to many chemical and
physical agents. Environmental exposure to hormonally
active chemicals is regarded as a reason for an increase
in the incidence of breast cancer, testicular cancer, and
other endocrine-related diseases (Davis et al., 1993;
Skakkebaek et al., 1998; Sharpe and Skakkebaek, 1993).
Bisphenol A (BPA) (CAS no.: 80-05-7), a known endocrine
disruptor, is a monomer composed of two unsaturated
phenolic rings that resemble diethylstilbestrol

Structure-activity relationship of 15 different Mn-salen derivatives against free radicals

9
Introduction
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced as a consequence
of electron transport processes in aerobic respiration,
biological defense, and photosynthesis (Datta et al.,
2000). However, higher than normal levels of ROS are toxic
to biological systems and thus are believed to be involved
in the pathogenesis of a wide array of human diseases,
more notably, in aging and neurodegenerative processes
(Harman, 1980; Moskovitz et al., 2002). The commonly
known species of ROS include hydroxyl (˙OH), peroxy

Celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, lowers plasma cholesterol and attenuates hepatic lipid peroxidation during carbon-tetrachloride–associated hepatotoxicity in rats

1
Introduction
The crucial role of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-prostanoid
pathway in inflammation, carcinogenesis, hemodynamics,
and renal function is well recognized. However, accumulating
data also indicate that the COX-2-prostanoid
pathway may be associated with various liver diseases
(Hu, 2003). The COX enzyme is known to play an important
role in arachidonate metabolism, where it catalyzes
the first step in the biosynthesis of various prostaglandins
(PGs) and thromboxanes (TXs) (Xie et al., 1991;

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