Токсикология

Acute effects of thymoquinone on the pregnant rat and embryo-fetal development

27
Introduction
Thymoquinone (TQ) is the major active constituent of the
volatile oil of Nigella sativa L. seeds (also known as black
cumin), which is used in herbal medicine and in food as
a condiment (Padhye et al., 2008; Butt and Sultan, 2010).
TQ exerts anticancer, antiinflammatory and antioxidant
effects both in vitro and in vivo (Shimizu et al., 2004).
Many investigators have shown that growth-inhibitory
effects of TQ are specific to cancer cells and that it showed

Genotoxicity and reproductive toxicity of bisphenol A and X-ray/bisphenol A combination in male mice

19
Introduction
Humans are constantly exposed to many chemical and
physical agents. Environmental exposure to hormonally
active chemicals is regarded as a reason for an increase
in the incidence of breast cancer, testicular cancer, and
other endocrine-related diseases (Davis et al., 1993;
Skakkebaek et al., 1998; Sharpe and Skakkebaek, 1993).
Bisphenol A (BPA) (CAS no.: 80-05-7), a known endocrine
disruptor, is a monomer composed of two unsaturated
phenolic rings that resemble diethylstilbestrol

Structure-activity relationship of 15 different Mn-salen derivatives against free radicals

9
Introduction
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced as a consequence
of electron transport processes in aerobic respiration,
biological defense, and photosynthesis (Datta et al.,
2000). However, higher than normal levels of ROS are toxic
to biological systems and thus are believed to be involved
in the pathogenesis of a wide array of human diseases,
more notably, in aging and neurodegenerative processes
(Harman, 1980; Moskovitz et al., 2002). The commonly
known species of ROS include hydroxyl (˙OH), peroxy

Celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, lowers plasma cholesterol and attenuates hepatic lipid peroxidation during carbon-tetrachloride–associated hepatotoxicity in rats

1
Introduction
The crucial role of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-prostanoid
pathway in inflammation, carcinogenesis, hemodynamics,
and renal function is well recognized. However, accumulating
data also indicate that the COX-2-prostanoid
pathway may be associated with various liver diseases
(Hu, 2003). The COX enzyme is known to play an important
role in arachidonate metabolism, where it catalyzes
the first step in the biosynthesis of various prostaglandins
(PGs) and thromboxanes (TXs) (Xie et al., 1991;

Токсикология

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Токсикология

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