Functional implications of hippocampal adult neurogenesis in intellectual disabilities

INVITED REVIEW Meritxell Pons-Espinal • Maria Martinez de Lagran • Mara Dierssen Received: 13 March 2013 / Accepted: 15 March 2013 / Published online: 20 April 2013 Springer-Verlag Wien 2013 Abstract The development of strategies capable to promote nervous system plasticity in adulthood is nowadays an important aim in neuroscience to improve not only cognitive abilities but also to ameliorate pathological dysfunctions. Several studies have demonstrated that adult neurogenesis is regulated by many physiological and

The endocannabinoid system: a revolving plate in neuro-immune interaction in health and disease

INVITED REVIEW R. Tanasescu • B. Gran • C. S. Constantinescu Received: 2 August 2011 / Accepted: 14 February 2012 / Published online: 26 February 2012 Springer-Verlag 2012 Abstract Studies of the last 40 years have brought to light an important physiological network, the endocannabinoid system. Endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids mediate their effects through activation of specific cannabinoid receptors. This modulatory homoeostatic system operates in the regulation of brain function and also in the periphery. The cannabinoid system has been shown to be

GABA is an effective immunomodulatory molecule

INVITED REVIEW Zhe Jin • Suresh Kumar Mendu • Bryndis Birnir Received: 2 August 2011 / Accepted: 30 November 2011 / Published online: 13 December 2011 The Author(s) 2011. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract In recent years, it has become clear that there is an extensive cross-talk between the nervous and the immune system. Somewhat surprisingly, the immune cells themselves do express components of the neuronal neurotransmitters systems. What role the neurotransmitters, their ion channels, receptors and transporters have in immune

Modulation of inflammatory pathways by the immune cholinergic system

INVITED REVIEW Eran Nizri • Talma Brenner Received: 31 July 2011 / Accepted: 30 November 2011 / Published online: 23 December 2011 Springer-Verlag 2011 Abstract Research done in the past years pointed to a novel function of cholinergic transmission. It has been shown that cholinergic transmission can modulate various aspects of the immune function, whether innate or adaptive. Cholinergic transmission affects immune cell proliferation, cytokine production, T helper differentiation and

Adrenergic modulation of immune cells: an update

INVITED REVIEW Franca Marino • Marco Cosentino Received: 2 September 2011 / Accepted: 23 November 2011 / Published online: 8 December 2011 Springer-Verlag 2011 Abstract Sympathoadrenergic pathways are crucial to the communication between the nervous system and the immune system. The present review addresses emerging issues in the adrenergic modulation of immune cells, including: the specific pattern of adrenoceptor expression on immune cells and their role and changes upon cell differentiation and activation; the production and utilization of noradrenaline and adrenaline by immune cells

The intriguing mission of neuropeptide Y in the immune system

INVITED REVIEW Mirjana Dimitrijevic ´ • Stanislava Stanojevic ´ Received: 30 July 2011 / Accepted: 23 November 2011 / Published online: 6 December 2011 Springer-Verlag 2011 Abstract For many years, the central nervous system and the immune system were considered two autonomous entities. However, extensive research in the field of neuroimmunomodulation during the past decades has demonstrated the presence of different neuropeptides and their respective receptors in the immune cells. More importantly, it has provided evidence for the direct effects of

Vasoactive intestinal peptide: a neuropeptide with pleiotropic immune functions

INVITED REVIEW Mario Delgado • Doina Ganea Received: 1 August 2011 / Accepted: 22 November 2011 / Published online: 3 December 2011 Springer-Verlag 2011 Abstract Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a 28-amino acid neuropeptide/neurotransmitter, is widely distributed in both the central and peripheral nervous system. VIP is released by both neurons and immune cells. Various cell types, including immune cells, express VIP receptors. VIP has pleiotropic effects as a neurotransmitter, immune regulator, vasodilator and secretagogue. This review is

Role of the mu-opioid receptor in opioid modulation of immune function

INVITED REVIEW Jana Ninkovic ´ • Sabita Roy Received: 29 July 2011 / Accepted: 15 November 2011 / Published online: 15 December 2011 Springer-Verlag 2011 Abstract Endogenous opioids are synthesized in vivo to modulate pain mechanisms and inflammatory pathways. Endogenous and exogenous opioids mediate analgesia in response to painful stimuli by binding to opioid receptors on neuronal cells. However, wide distribution of opioid receptors on tissues and organ systems outside the CNS, such as the cells of the immune system, indicate that opioids

Modulation of immune responses by the neuropeptide CGRP

INVITED REVIEW Bernhard Holzmann Received: 28 July 2011 / Accepted: 14 November 2011 / Published online: 24 November 2011 Springer-Verlag 2011 Abstract The peripheral nervous system is connected with lymphoid organs through sensory nerves that mediate pain reflexes and may influence immune responses through the release of neuropeptides such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Local and systemic levels of CGRP increase rapidly during inflammatory responses. CGRP inhibits effector functions of various immune cells and dampens inflammation by distinct pathways involving the

Is mTOR involved in the mechanisms of the fast-acting antidepressant effects of AMPA receptor agonists?

LETTER TO THE EDITOR Yimin Hu • Xiangliu Liu • Jinchun Shen Received: 19 July 2012 / Accepted: 25 September 2012 / Published online: 11 October 2012 Springer-Verlag Wien 2012 We read with great interest the article ‘‘The involvement of AMPA-ERK1/2-BDNF pathway in the mechanism of new antidepressant action of prokinetic meranzin hydrate’’, in which the authors concluded that AMPA receptors were involved in the mechanism of the antidepressant effects of prokinetic meranzin hydrate (Xie et al. 2012). We appreciate the author’s excellent perspectives and want to


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