STUDY ON DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENT OF BROMIDE IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION ON ION EXCHANGE RESINS DUOLITE A161 AND DUOLITE A162

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The ion exchange resins Duolite A161 and Duolite A162 in bromide form were equilibrated separately with
the labeled radioactive bromide ion solution of different concentrations varied from 0.005 to 0.100 M in the
temperature range 25.0–45.0°C. The Kd
values of bromide ions for Duolite A162 were found to be higher
than that for Duolite A161 under similar experimental conditions. The difference in Kd
values of bromide
ions for these two resins is produced by a swelling pressure depending on the water holding capacities. 

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КОЛЛОИДНЫЙ ЖУРНАЛ, 2010, том 72, № 6, с. 860–862
860
INTRODUCTION
There is a wide range of liquid processes and waste
streams at nuclear power plants, fuel reprocessing plants
and nuclear research centers that requires the removal of
radioactive contaminants. One of the most common
treatment methods for such aqueous streams is the use of
ion exchange process – a well developed technique that
has been employed for many years in nuclear industries
[1, 2]. The ion exchange process is very efficient in trans
ferring the radioactive content of a large volume of liquid
into a small volume of solid.The development of new ion
exchangers for specific applications remains of great cur
rent interest in the field. Various aspects of ion exchange
technologies have been continuously studied to improve
the efficiency and economy of their application in radio
active waste processing. The selection of an appropriate
ion exchange material for the liquid radioactive waste
treatment is made on the basis of information provided
by the manufacturer. Since the selection of an appropri
ate ion exchange material depends on the application of
the system, it is however expected that the data obtained
from the actual experimental trials will prove to be more
helpful. Generally, the selected ion exchange materials
must be compatible with the chemical nature of the ra
dioactive liquid waste, type and concentration of ionic
species as well as with the operating parameters, from
which the temperature is most important one. Designing
an ion exchange processing system, it is desirable to have
an adequate knowledge of the distribution coefficient
values of the ion exchange resin for different ions present
ed in radioactive liquid waste. These distribution coeffi
cients are very important parameters for environmental
impact assessment on the disposal of radioactive waste
arising from research institutes [3]. 
Although there are different methods available for de
termination of the distribution coefficient values, radio
active isotopic technique is expected to be the most ap
propriate method, which offers several advantages such
as high detection sensitivity, capability of in situ detec
tion, and physicochemical compatibility with the stud
ied material [4–8]. Recently, several research groups at
tempted to study the concentration and temperature ef
fect on cation exchange systems for computing the
distribution coefficient values [9–15]. However, the dis
tribution coefficient values in anion exchange systems re
main unknown [16]. 
Herein, we report on the radioactive isotopic tech
nique used to study the factors affecting the distribution
coefficient of bromide ions on strongly basic anion ex
change resins Duolite A161 and Duolite A162. 
EXPERIMENTAL
The ion exchange resins Duolite A161 and Duolite
A162 were purchased from Auchtel Products Ltd. (In
dia) and used in chloride form. All details regarding the
properties of the resins are summarized in Table 1.
The resins were converted into bromide form by the
eluting with 10% KBr solution in a conditioning column.
The 1.000 g of conditioned resins in bromide form were
equilibrated with 250 mL of labeled radioactive bromide
ion solution (0.005 M) under continuous mechanical
stirring for 3 h at a constant temperature of 25.0°C until
the equilibration of the reacting system.
The ionisotopic exchange reaction can be described
as follows:
R–Br +   R–Br* +  (1) ()aq.
*
Br
− ()aq.
Br .

STUDY ON DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENT OF BROMIDE IONS 
FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION ON ION EXCHANGE RESINS DUOLITE A161 
AND DUOLITE A162
© 2010 P. U. Singare1
, R. S. Lokhande
2
, P. Karthekayan
2
, S. R. D. Tiwari
2
1
Department of Chemistry, Bhavans College
Andheri, Mumbai 400058, India
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai 
Vidyanagari, Santacruz, Mumbai 400098, India 
Поступила в редакцию17.09.2009 г.
The ion exchange resins Duolite A161 and Duolite A162 in bromide form were equilibrated separately with
the labeled radioactive bromide ion solution of different concentrations varied from 0.005 to 0.100 M in the
temperature range 25.0–45.0°C. The Kd
values of bromide ions for Duolite A162 were found to be higher
than that for Duolite A161 under similar experimental conditions. The difference in Kd
values of bromide
ions for these two resins is produced by a swelling pressure depending on the water holding capacities. 
УДК 541.183
КРАТКОЕ СООБЩЕНИЕ
КОЛЛОИДНЫЙ ЖУРНАЛ том 72  № 6  2010
STUDY ON DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENT OF BROMIDE IONS 861
Here,  is referred to an aqueous solution of bro
mide ions labeled with 82
Br radioactive isotope. 
The initial and final activities (Ai
and Af
, respectively)
expressed in counts per minutes (c.p.m.) in the labeled
solution were measured on γray spectrometer supplied
with a Na(I)Tl scintillation detector. Using Ai
and Af, the
Kd
value was calculated from the equation 
Kd
= [(Ai
– Af
)/Af
](V/m). (2)
All experiments were reproduced in the same man
ner by increasing the bromide ion concentrations up to
0.100 M and the temperature up to 45.0°C. The Kd
values
for different experiments were calculated using Eq. (2). 
The 
82
Br isotope used in our experimental work was
an aqueous solution of ammonium bromide in dilute
ammonium hydroxide having initial activity of 5 mCi,
γenergy of 0.55 MeV, and t
1/2 
of 36 h [17].
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In our work, the ion exchange resin in bromide form
was equilibrated for 3 h with labeled bromide ion solu
tion of known initial activity. According to previous
works [4–8, 18–24], this period is long enough to reach
equilibrium. The ion isotopic exchange reactions de
()aq.
*
Br
− creases the activity of the aqueous solution with time.
The decrease in activity of the solution was measured af
ter 3 h that corresponds to the final activity achieved. On
the basis of obtained values of initial and final activities,
the Kd
values were calculated by Eq. (2) to study the effect
of temperature and concentration. In the study related
with chloride distribution coefficient on strongly basic
anionexchange resin, Heumann et al. [16] have shown
that the selectivity coefficient between halide ions in
creases with electrolyte concentrations. Adachi et al. [9]
observed that the swelling pressure of the resin decreased
at higher solute concentrationsresulting in larger distri
bution coefficient values. The temperature dependence
of the distribution coefficient on cation exchange resin
was studied by Shuji et al. [11]; they observed that the dis
tribution coefficients increased with decreasing tempera
ture. Our experimental results also indicate that the dis
tribution coefficients of bromide ions for the two resins
increase with the increase in bromide ion concentration
(Table 2). The increase of system temperature results,
however, in the pronounced decrease of calculatedKd
values (Table 3). Furthermore, the Kd
of bromide ions
calculated for Duolite A162 were higher than those for
Duolite A161 (Tables 2 and 3). The difference in Kd
val
ues for two resins is mainly results from their water hold
ing capacities, which affect the swelling pressure. The
Table 1.Properties of ion exchange resins
Ion 
exchangeresin
Type/Functional group/Ionic form
Particle 
size, mm
Moisture
content, %
Operat
ing pH
Maximum opera
ting temperature, 
°C
Total exchange 
capacity, eq./L
Duolite A 161 Cross linked polystyrene/ Quaternary 
ammonium/ Type1 resin in Cl

form 
0.3–1.2 56 0–14 100 1.15
Duolite A 162 Cross linked polystyrene/ Quaternary 
ammonium/ Type1 resin in Cl
–form
0.3–1.2 51 0–14 75 1.15
Table 2.Effect of ionic concentration on bromide ion dis
tribution coefficients. Temperature is of 25.0°C; amount of
ion exchange resin in bromide form is of 1.000 g; volume of
labeled radioactive bromide ion solution is of 250 mL
Concentration of labeled 
bromide ion solution, M
logKd
Duolite A161  Duolite A162 
0.005 2.90 4.28 
0.010 3.00 4.41 
0.020 3.13 4.57 
0.040 3.25 4.96
0.100 3.94 5.48
Table 3.Effect of temperature on bromide ion distribution
coefficients. Concentration of labeled radioactive bromide
ion solution is of 0.005 M; amount of ion exchange resin in
bromide form is of 1.000 g; volume of labeled radioactive
bromide ion solution is of 250 mL
Temperature, °C
logKd
Duolite A161  Duolite A162 
25.0 2.90 4.28 
30.0 2.79 4.12 
35.0 2.64 3.97 
40.0 2.50 3.75 
45.0 2.34 3.60 
862
КОЛЛОИДНЫЙ ЖУРНАЛ том 72  № 6  2010
SINGARE и др.
variation in Kdvalues of bromide ions with temperature
and concentration of ionic solution for the ion exchange
resins Duolite A161 and Duolite A162 is graphically
represented in Figure.
CONCLUSIONS
The rate of heavy metal removal is considered to be an
important factor for the reactor design and process opti
mization [25]. Earlier research has demonstrated the fea
sibility of bioresin in a continuous system for decontami
nating pool water of 
60
Co [26]. For decontamination pro
cesses, the accurate determination of distribution
coefficients is required to make a decision about appropri
ate resin material. Our experimental work demonstrates
an application of radioactive active tracer technique to
study the parameters affecting the distribution coefficient.
This approach can be extended further to study the Kd
val
ues for various ions in liquid radioactive waste with various
ion exchange resins. The database of obtained Kdvalue
can serve as a helpful practical tool for the environmental
impact assessment on the disposal of radioactive waste [3].
REFERENCES
1.International Atomic Energy Agency, Operation and Control
of Ion Exchange Processes for Treatment of Radioactive
Wastes, Technical Rep. Ser., No. 78, IAEA, Vienna, 1967.
2.International Atomic Energy Agency, Treatment of Low
and Intermediatelevel Liquid Radioactive Wastes,
Technical Rep. Ser., No. 236, IAEA, Vienna, 1984.
3. Shin’ichi, T. and Masayoshi, A., Nippon Genshiryoku
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chim. Acta, 2007, vol. 95, p. 111.
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6
5
4
3
2
1
0
30 25 45 40 35 30 25 45 40 35
Duolite A161 Duolite A162
Temperature, °C
logKd 0.005 0.010 0.020 0.040 0.100
Variations of bromide ion distribution coefficient with
concentration and temperature. Amount of ion exchange
resin in bromide form = 1.000 g, volume of labeled radio
active bromide ion solution = 250 mL.

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